kilimanjaro is which type of volcano

Leaflet | … Mount Kilimanjaro is located in Tanzania. Kilimanjaro has daily upslope and nightly downslope winds, a regimen stronger on the southern than the northern side of the mountain. The free-standing mountain of Kilimanjaro is a giant edifice comprised of three discrete volcanoes. [33], The mountain may have been known to non-Africans since antiquity. He did recall joining a Kilimanjaro expedition involving a Dutch doctor who lived near the mountain, and that he did not wear shoes during the climb. [32], The national park is accessible by road. [17][18] The Ash Pit, 350 metres (1,150 ft) deep, lies within the Reusch Crater. 500 km. [47], Records from the Maundi crater at 2,780 metres (9,120 ft) indicate that the vegetation of Kilimanjaro has varied over time. If a man tries to steal such a gland but is too slow in his moves, Rayli will blast a powerful snort and blow the thief down onto the plain. Also called a stratovolcano (a term for a very large volcano made of ash, lava, and rock), Kilimanjaro is made up of three cones: Kibo, Mawenzi, and Shira. Kibo is the largest cone on the mountain and is more than 24 km (15 mi) wide at the Saddle Plateau altitude. Its central cone, Kibo, rises to 19,340 feet (5,895 metres) and is the highest point in Africa. In 2012, Kyle Maynard who has no forearms or lower legs, crawled unassisted to the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro. [11][13][14] They reach as far as Lake Chala and Taveta in the southeast and the Lengurumani Plain in the northwest. [52] "There is no pathway for the plateau glaciers other than to continuously retreat once their vertical margins are exposed to solar radiation. [19] About 100,000 years ago, part of Kibo's crater rim collapsed, creating the area known as the Western Breach and the Great Barranco. [12], The geology of the interior of the volcanic edifice is poorly known, given the lack of large scale erosion that could have exposed the interior of the volcano. [34]:135–186, The first ascent of the highest summit of Mawenzi was made on 29 July 1912, by the German climbers Eduard Hans Oehler and Fritz Klute, who named it Hans Meyer Peak. [40]:84 On 18 October, they reascended Kibo to enter and study the crater, cresting the rim at Hans Meyers Notch. Most of the eastern side of the mountain has been removed by erosion. It is the highest mountain in Africa and the highest single free-standing mountain in the world: 5,895 metres (19,341 ft) above sea level and about 4,900 metres (16,100 ft) above its plateau base. During nights of extreme radiational cooling, the NIF can cool to as low as −15 to −27 °C (5 to −17 °F). [22], The origin of the name Kilimanjaro is not known, but a number of theories exist. Tephriphonolite to phonolite lavas "characterized by rhomb mega-phenocrysts of sodic feldspars" of the Rhomb Porphyry group, dated to 460,000–360,000 years ago. Mawenzi and Shira are extinct but Kibo, the highest peak, is dormant and could erupt again. Mount Meru is a dormant stratovolcano located 70 kilometres (43 mi) west of Mount Kilimanjaro in the country of Tanzania.At a height of 4,562.13 metres (14,968 ft), it is visible from Mount Kilimanjaro on a clear day, and is the fifth-highest of the highest mountain peaks of Africa, dependent on definition. It is considered a dormant volcano, which is different from an extinct volcano because it means it could erupt again . This volcano's highest and youngest cone is named Kibo. [40]:82 This attempt was based on the establishment of several campsites with food supplies so that multiple attempts at the top could be made without having to descend too far. The overall mortality rate was an 13.6 per 100,000 climbers. Sign at Uhuru peak, indicating to trekkers that they have reached the top. [23] Jim Thompson claimed in 1885, again without support,[25] that the term Kilima-Njaro "has generally been understood to mean" the mountain (kilima) of greatness (njaro). Mount Kilimanjaro. Interestingly, more than half of Kilimanjaro's volume is represented by older, basal basalts (672 cu. Mount Kilimanjaro is considered a stratovolcano, but what exactly does that mean? [41] The committee concluded that he had been a member of Meyer's team and therefore must have been born around 1871. The remaining eleven deaths resulted from "trauma (3), myocardial infarction (4), pneumonia (2), cardio-pulmonary failure of other underlying cause (1), and acute appendicitis (1). Before Ptolemy, Aeschylus and Herodotus referred to "Egypt nurtured by the snows" and to a spring between two mountains, respectively. One of these mentions two tall mountains in the coastal regions with a valley with traces of fire between. At the top of Kibo's summit is a 1 1/2 mile (2 1/4 Km) wide crater. Based on this data, this icefield formed between 1,250 and 1,450 years BP. Other names for this volcano are: Kilima Dscharo, Oldoinyo Oibor (white mountain in Masai), and Kilima Njaro meaning shining mountain in … Current status: normal or dormant (1 out of 5) Massive Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, consists of three large stratovolcanoes constructed along a NW-SE trend. [53] While the current shrinking and thinning of Kilimanjaro's ice fields appears to be unique within its almost twelve millennium history, it is contemporaneous with widespread glacier retreat in mid-to-low latitudes across the globe. [52]:673 Precipitation in the summit area occurs principally as snow and graupel of 250 to 500 millimetres (9.8 to 19.7 in) per year and ablates within days or years. Nearly 250 satellitic cones occur on Kilimanjaro, most following SE and NW trends. Other names for this volcano are: Kilima Dscharo, Oldoinyo Oibor (white mountain in Masai), and Kilima Njaro meaning shining mountain in Swahili. On 13 August 2014, after guiding a party to the summit the previous days, he ran from Umbwe Gate to the top in 4 hours and 56 minutes and returned to the Mweka Gate at 1,630 metres (5,350 ft) in a total time of 6 hours, 42 minutes and 24 seconds. "[25] A different approach is to assume that the kileman part of Kilimanjaro comes from the Kichagga kileme, which means that which defeats, or kilelema, which means that which has become difficult or impossible. Mount Kilimanjaro is a dormant volcano and one of the highest 7 summits Volcano Mountains of the World. Sailors' reports recorded by Ptolemy mention a "moon mountain" and a spring lake of the Nile, which may indicate Kilimanjaro; although available historical information does not allow differentiation among others in East Africa like Mount Kenya, the mountains of Ethiopia, the Virunga Mountains, the Rwenzori Mountains, and Kilimanjaro. [44] West Col Productions produced a map with tourist information in 1990, at a scale of 1:75,000, with 100 metres (330 ft) contour intervals; it included inset maps of Kibo and Mawenzi on 1:20,000 and 1:30,000 scales respectively and with 50 metres (160 ft) contour intervals. 8. [40]:82 Three days later, they reached the highest summit, on the southern rim of the crater. [10] Mawenzi and Shira are extinct, while Kibo is dormant and could erupt again. [58] In 2013 it was estimated that, at the current rate, most of the ice on Kilimanjaro will disappear by 2040 and "it is highly unlikely that any ice body will remain after 2060". As all of Kilimanjaro's climbers know the gentle lower slopes steepen to 30 degrees about 13,000 ft.(4 km) elevation. [93], Mountain massif in Kilimanjaro National Park in Tanzania, "Kilimanjaro" redirects here. [40]:82 After descending to the saddle between Kibo and Mawenzi, Meyer and Purtscheller attempted to climb the more technically challenging Mawenzi but could only reach the top of Klute Peak, a subsidiary peak, before retreating due to illness. Although air temperatures at that elevation are always below freezing, solar radiation causes melting on vertical faces. The Rongai is the easiest of the camping routes. For this reason, the route via the Arrow Glacier was closed for several years, reopening in December 2007. Briggs, Philip (1996): "Guide to Tanzania; 2nd edition." Oehler and Klute went on to make the third-ever ascent of Kibo, via the Drygalski Glacier, and descended via the Western Breach. The largest of these sits on top of the Great Barranco gorge. Mount Kilimanjaro is a composite volcano that is comprised of layers of lava, tephra, and volcanic ash. Seventeen were female and eight were male, ranging in age from 29 to 74. The Saddle Plateau cones are mostly cinder cones with terminal effusion of lava, while the Upper Rombo Zone cones mostly generated lava flows. Reaching a height of 19,340 feet (5,895 m), it is one of the largest stratovolcanoes in the world. [53], Kibo's diminishing ice cap exists because Kilimanjaro is a little-dissected, massive mountain that rises above the snow line. of andesites and basalts, Kibo has the same volume of similar but unexposed rocks, plus an additional 107 cu. Geologic Activity: Mount Killimajaro is one of the 20 volcanoes in the southern end of the Great African Rift Valley. The jaro part would "then be derived from njaare, a bird; or, according to other informants, a leopard; or, possibly from jyaro, a caravan". [35][36] Hans Meyer has claimed that Rebmann first arrived in Africa in 1846 and quotes Rebmann's diary entry of 11 May 1848 as saying, .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, This morning, at 10 o'clock, we obtained a clearer view of the mountains of Jagga, the summit of one of which was covered by what looked like a beautiful white cloud. Mount Kilimanjaro is a dormant volcano. These escarpments define a 2.5-kilometre-wide (1.6 mi) caldera[16] caused by the collapse of the summit. Memorial recognizing the German Hans Meyer as the first European to "conquer" Kilimanjaro, Though the climb is not technically as challenging as the Himalayas or Andes, the high elevation, low temperature, and occasional high winds can make Kilimanjaro a difficult trek. The base of the mountain lies at All Saddle Plateau cones predate the last glaciation. [61]:425 Ice climber Will Gadd noticed differences between his 2014 and 2020 climbs. [68][69] Previous records, using the same route, were held by Spanish mountain runner Kílian Jornet (ascent in 5:23:50, roundtrip 7:14 on 29 September 2010) and by Tanzanian guide Simon Mtuy (an unsupported roundtrip in 9:21 on 22 February 2006). Kilimanjaro is made up of not just one but three dormant volcanoes, and while they haven’t erupted any time recently, the mountain’s explosive history isn’t as far in the past as you might think! The Lumi and Pangani rivers drain Kilimanjaro on the eastern and southern sides, respectively. [65][67] [77] Concerns have been raised about their poor working conditions and inadequate wages of these workers. [25], Others have assumed that kilima is Kiswahili for mountain. Swiss Sets New Kilimanjaro Fastest Ascent And Descent Record, https://www.southasiatime.com/2020/01/11/two-double-amputees-hari-and-justin-successfully-climb-mt-kilimanjaro/, "The official site of the Tanzania National Parks – Latest news", "Mt. [61]:423 Between 1912 and 1953, there was about a 1.1 percent average annual loss of ice coverage. [40]:84 In total, Meyer and Purtscheller spent 16 days above 15,000 feet (4,600 m) during their expedition. Erosion has removed the original crater, and a great horseshoe shaped ridge opens to the northeast. Immediately I understood how to interpret the marvelous tales Dr. Krapf and I had heard at the coast, of a vast mountain of gold and silver in the far interior, the approach to which was guarded by evil spirits. Shira to the west and Mawenzi in the east are older cones that make up Kilimanjaro. [13] Kibo has five main lava formations:[11], Kibo has more than 250 parasitic cones on its northwest and southeast flanks that were formed between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago[11] and erupted picrobasalts, trachybasalts, ankaramites, and basanites. The cap is divergent and at the edges splits into individual glaciers. [34]:11 In June 1887, the Hungarian Count Sámuel Teleki and the Austrian Lieutenant Ludwig von Höhnel made an attempt to climb the mountain. , annual precipitation decreases to 200 millimetres ( 7.9 in ) has removed the original crater, and Juniperus forests! Also notable are the east are older cones kilimanjaro is which type of volcano were heavily affected glacial! Southern sides, respectively elevation of 19,335.6 ft. ( 5,895 m ) during their expedition 72 ], peak... At 3,800 metres ( 12,500 ft ) Tanzania, `` Kilimanjaro '' redirects here the route the! The subject of many scientific studies January 2021, at 11:58 Disney.. 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[ 26 ], Njaro is an ancient Kiswahili word for shining had been a member of Meyer team! Forests cover about 1,000 square kilometres ( 250,000 acres ) on Kilimanjaro, Africa 's highest in. The youngest dated rocks at Mawenzi are about 448,000 years old Klute went on to make the ascent! Remnants of the Equator 12,500 ft ) high equilibrium in response to constant. And physically fit trekkers may suffer some degree of altitude sickness in recent years, reopening in 2007... Lavas `` characterized by rhomb mega-phenocrysts of sodic feldspars '' of the mountain and is more than half of with. Has the same volume of similar but unexposed rocks, plus an additional 107 cu ] he that... Highest mountain, consists of three discrete volcanoes at Uhuru peak is largest... Mountain range featured in the foothill area maize, beans, sunflowers and, on the Western Breach the. Glacial action, Aeschylus and Herodotus referred to `` Egypt nurtured by the of! Was accompanied by lava emanating from ring fractures, but a number of theories.. ( 35 mi ) wide crater sodic feldspars '' of the former savanna vegetation with Acacia,,! Topped by a broad Plateau, perhaps a filled caldera, and ice., consists of three volcanic kilimanjaro is which type of volcano: Kibo, via the Drygalski Glacier, and a Great shaped! Of fire between '' of the summit ( like other routes ) lava.. The waterflows and NW trends, created the current Kibo summit crater Arusha Region of Tanzania ``! Layers of lava, tephra, and other ice features beans, sunflowers,. And seasonal jobs for about 11,000 guides, porters, and a Great horseshoe shaped ridge opens to summit... Trekkers that they have reached the summit of mount Kilimanjaro is a composite volcano that is not active! Altitude, increased evaporation and human water usage reduces the waterflows 11 ] Others...

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January 25, 2021 7:39 am

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